Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
|Courses taught in foreign languages
|Course with optional materials in a foreign language: English
* This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.
|Office Hours for Students: Wednesday 16.00 - 18.00
| The objective of this course is to illustrate the basic principles, the techniques, and the tools for programming computer applications, through the presentation of the concepts typical of procedural imperative programming and logical declarative programming.
| 01. Introduction to computer programming
01.01 Basic definitions in informatics
01.02 A bit of history of informatics
01.03 Elements of computer architecture
01.04 Elements of operating systems
01.05 Elements of programming languages and compilers
01.06 A methodology for developing software "in the small"
02. Procedural programming: the language ANSI C
02.01 A bit of history of C
02.02 Format of a program with a single function
02.03 Library inclusion
02.04 Function main
02.06 Predefined data types: int, double, char
02.07 Library functions for interactive input/output
02.08 Library functions for file-based input/output
03.01 Symbolic constant definition
03.02 Variable declaration
03.03 Arithmetical operators
03.04 Relational operators
03.05 Logical operators
03.06 Conditional operator
03.07 Assignment operators
03.08 Increment/decrement operators
03.09 Operator comma
03.10 Type of the expressions
03.11 Precedence and associativity of the operators
04.01 Assignment statement
04.02 Compound statement
04.03 Selection statements: if, switch
04.04 Repetition statements: while, for, do-while
04.05 Statement goto
04.06 Fundamental theorem of structured programming
05.01 Format of a program with several functions on a single file
05.02 Function declaration
05.03 Function definition and formal parameters
05.04 Function invocation and actual parameters
05.05 Statement return
05.06 Parameters and result of function main
05.07 Passing parameters by value and by reference
05.08 Recursive functions
05.09 Stack-based sequential execution model
05.10 Format of a program with several functions on several files
05.11 Scope of local and nonlocal identifiers
06. Data types
06.01 Data type classification and sizeof operator
06.02 Type int: representation and variants
06.03 Type double: representation and variants
06.04 Mathematical library functions
06.05 Type char: representation and library functions
06.06 Enumerated types
06.07 Type conversions and cast operator
06.08 Arrays: representation and indexing operator
06.09 Strings: representation and library functions
06.10 Structures and unions: representation and dot operator
06.11 Pointers: operators and library functions
07. Correctness of procedural programs
07.01 Hoare triples
07.02 Determining the weakest precondition
07.03 Verifying the correctness of iterative procedural programs
07.04 Verifying the correctness of recursive procedural programs
08. Introduction to mathematical logic
08.01 A bit of history of logic
08.02 Elements of set theory
08.03 Relations, functions, operations
08.04 Induction principle
09. Propositional logic
09.01 Syntax of propositional logic
09.02 Semantics and decidability of propositional logic
09.03 Consequence and equivalence in propositional logic
09.04 Algebraic properties of the logical connectives
09.05 Deduction systems for propositional logic
10. Predicate logic
10.01 Syntax of predicate logic
10.02 Semantics and undecidability of predicate logic
10.03 Consequence and equivalence in predicate logic
10.04 Algebraic properties of the quantifiers
10.05 Deduction systems for predicate logic
11. Logic programming: the language Prolog
11.01 Normal forms for propositional and predicate logic
11.02 Herbrand theory and refutation algorithm
11.03 Robinson resolution for propositional logic
11.04 Unification of predicate logic formulas
11.05 Robinson resolution for predicate logic
11.06 Prolog: Horn clauses and SLD resolution strategy
11.07 Prolog: terms and predicates
11.08 Prolog: input/output, cut, negation, miscellany
12. Laboratory activities in Linux
12.01 A bit of history of Linux
12.02 File management in Linux
12.03 The editor gvim
12.04 The compiler gcc
12.05 The maintenance utility make
12.06 The debugger gdb
12.07 Implementation of the C programs introduced in the lectures
12.08 The compiler/interpreter gprolog
12.09 Implementation of the Prolog programs introduced in the lectures
| There are no mandatory prerequisites.
It is recommended to take the exam of Procedural and Logic Programming after taking the exam of Discrete Structure and Linear Algebra and before taking all the other exams except those of mathematics and physics.
|Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)
| Knowledge and understanding
The student will acquire the fundamental knowledge in the field of computer programming, especially for the procedural imperative programming paradigm exemplified through the ANSI C language and the logical declarative programming paradigm exemplified through the Prolog language, and will become familiar with the terminology for constant definitions, variable declarations, arithmetical-logical expressions, programming statements, functions, predicates, parameters, libraries, and data types. Moreover, the student will know a methodology for developing small-size software systems, as well as the technique of Hoare triples for verifying their correctness. Finally, the student will learn the syntactical, semantical, algebraic, and deductive concepts underpinning propositional logic and predicate logic that are necessary for logic programming.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will be able to design and develop small-size software systems by means of the application of a methodology that covers problem analysis, algorithm design, and program implementation, testing, verification, and maintenance. As far as the implementation phase is concerned, the student will know to carry it out through both a procedural imperative programming language and a logical declarative programming language.
The student will be able to evaluate and compare alternative designs of the same small-size software system, as well as to analyze and contrast alternative implementations of the same software design.
The student will be able to appropriately use the terminology of procedural imperative programming languages and of logical declarative programming languages. Furthermore, the student will know to illustrate the main characteristics of the design and the implementation of a small-size software system, including the production of the software system documentation in terms of technical report, internal comments, and user manual.
The student will acquire the capacity of learning the syntactical and semantical features of any procedural imperative programming language and of any logical declarative programming language.
|Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment
| Theory lectures and laboratory exercises.
| Although strongly recommended, course attendance is not mandatory.
| Hanly, Koffman, "Problem Solving and Program Design in C", Addison-Wesley, 2016
(Hanly, Koffman, "Problem Solving e Programmazione in C", Apogeo, 2013).
Kernighan, Ritchie, "The C Programming Language", Prentice Hall, 1988
(Kernighan, Ritchie, "Il Linguaggio C", Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004).
Asperti, Ciabattoni, "Logica a Informatica", McGraw-Hill, 1997
(Schöning, "Logic for Computer Scientists", Birkhäuser, 2008).
Console, Lamma, Mello, Milano, "Programmazione Logica e Prolog", UTET, 1997
(Sterling, Shapiro, "The Art of Prolog", MIT Press, 1997).
| Project, written exam, and oral exam.
The project, which changes at each exam session, has to be submitted at least 10 days before the written exam. It is passed if the mark is at least 18/30; the mark is valid until the second exam session after the one in which the project is submitted. In case of late submission, a 3/30 penalty is applied for each day after the deadline. Should the project be resubmitted in a subsequent exam call, the mark of the previously submitted project is canceled; if the resubmission takes place in the same exam session, a 5/30 penalty is applied to the mark of the newly submitted project because the developers can benefit from the correction of the previously submitted project.
The written exam, which changes at each exam call and can be taken only if the project has been passed, consists of 9 questions plus 2 exercises to carry out in 90 minutes. It is passed if the mark is at least 18/30; the mark is valid only for the exam call in which the written exam is taken.
The oral exam, which can be taken only if the project and the written exam have been passed, consists of a discussion of the project and of the written exam, plus further questions. If passed, it determines an adjustment between -5/30 and 5/30 of the average of the two previous marks, thus yielding the final mark.
For further information about projects and written exams > www.sti.uniurb.it/bernardo/teaching/prog_proc_logi/
| The course offers additional e-learning facilities on the Moodle platform > elearning.uniurb.it